Has the Paris Agreement been trumped?
Last year around this time the world was gearing up for a historical climate deal in the making. The United States and 194 other nations were presented a final draft agreement on climate change. This agreement commits countries to a common goal on keeping global warming below 2 degrees Celsius. It was the perfect way to end 2015 and start 2016 sertraline generic. While things in 2016 went downhill very fast, signing of the Paris Agreement went remarkably well. Currently 197 parties have signed the Paris agreement and 115 parties have ratified the treaty. These parties represent 79% of the world global emissions. It was agreed that for the Paris Agreement to enter into force, 55% of the global emissions must join. This target has been reached, meaning that the agreement entered into force on 4 November 2016. marcas de viagra generico quanto costa il cialis generico in farmacia
Like many international treaties there are three stages of a treaty coming into effect: adoption, signing and joining. The adoption date of the treaty was 12 December 2015 in Paris, hence the name “Paris Agreement”. The adoption is followed by the signing part, this is important as it indicates commitment by the signing party. This process started on 22 April 2016 and will be open until 21 April 2017. After signing follows joining. This can be done in several ways, with ratification being one of them. There is no time limit to this. Amongst the countries that have signed the Paris Agreement are the three biggest global emitters: China, the United States and the European Union. Having them on board in this climate deal is kind of a big deal. erfahrungsbericht levitra 10mg
The results of the US elections have made US participation to this deal uncertain, to say the least. US President-Elect Donald Trump does not believe in Climate Change and thinks it is a hoax perpetrated by the Chinese. He recently called the Paris Agreement ‘one-sided’ and ‘bad for the United States’. Personally, I find that a treaty, which has carefully been negotiated and agreed upon by 195 countries, could never be considered ‘one-sided’, but that is beside the point. The point is that when it comes to emitters, the United States ranks second. The possibility of the United States leaving the Paris Agreement would seriously harm the treaty (and the well-being of future generations). The US leaving the Paris Agreement to pursue economic growth through fossil fuels would be a serious setback. Additionally, it could stimulate other nations to do the same, creating a domino effect. where can you buy viagra viagra online boots
Thankfully, there is some good news to be reported. Recently COP22 was held in Morocco, countries there have stated the will to continue efforts in upholding the 2 degrees Celsius target and other commitments under the Paris Agreement. Amongst these countries is China. Good news is coming out the US too. While the Federal Government might have the intention of taking a step back, cities, businesses and civil society are stepping up their efforts. On 2 December 2016 the mayors of Washington DC, Portland, Austin, Seattle and Phoenix announced that they have taken 2,400 individual actions to respond to climate change in the past decade. Examples of this are retrofitting New York City buildings in making them more energy efficient and the rollout of LED streetlights in Los Angeles. Additionally 154 American companies have signed the “American Business Act on Climate Pledge”, demonstrating their commitment to climate action. These commitments range from reducing emissions to increasing low-carbon investments. These companies have operations in all 50 states, employ about 11 million people and represent more than 4.2 trillion USD in annual revenue. Amongst them are companies such as Facebook, Amazon, Google and American Express. viagra dosage 25mg viagra online
To conclude, it has to be seen what the Trump presidency will mean for climate change and for the Paris Agreement. The outlook is grim given his history as a staunch climate change denier, however good news can still be reported from both the international community as well as communities within the United States.